AXIe is the latest standard for building high-end modular instrumentation based on the AdvancedTCA telecommunications computing architecture with expandability for a variety of instrumentation and test systems. AXIe appeared in 2010, and equipment manufacturers in this standard joined together in an international consortium. The main role in the consortium is played by such famous world giants as VIAVI Solutions, Keysight Technologies, Giga-tronics Incorporated, Test Evolution Corporation and others. The main applications of equipment in AXIe are: functional testing of modern electronic equipment, testing of the element base (VLSI, processors, etc.), radio measurements and multichannel data collection systems for testing space, aviation and other objects.
Informtest Holding is the first and so far the only one of the Russian manufacturers of instrumentation, adopted in March 2012 into the international AXIe Consortium.
In 2014, the AXIe-0 specification was released, which is a budget version of the AXIe-1 standard and is used for switches and applications that do not have high requirements for synchronization of measurements and tests.
In 2019, a high-speed ODI optical data interface was released as part of the AXIe standard. The ODI standard is designed to solve complex problems in the field of 5G communications, testing aviation and space objects thanks to speeds reaching 640 Gb / s.
Today, Russia also has an active AXIe standard. Currently already being produced:
- 11 types of AXIe modules
- 3 types of controllers
- 3 types of AXIe carriers for mezzanine modules
- 6 types of AXIe chassis
- 52 types of mezzanine modules
This standard makes it possible to flexibly configure instrumentation systems to obtain the highest performance during their operation. According to the developers, AXIe will overcome the shortcomings of existing standards and finally introduce an open standard for mezzanine measuring modules. AXIe promotes even greater unification of modular meters for a variety of applications in science and industry.
AXIe is an alloy of technical solutions used in all open standards:
- Minimum weight and size characteristics of an automated measuring system
- The most modern open standard, incorporating the advantages of VXI and PXI standards (dimensions and speed, respectively)
- Unified power supply system for 48 V modules
- The best indicators in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (including due to the physically large dimensions of the modules)
- Support for a functional control system of the "Star" type
- 300 W maximum input power for each slot of the rack (the possibility of implementing energy-intensive systems)
Stages of development of AXIe
The open international standard PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation) defines the rules for constructing equipment for measurement and automation applications. PXI is a high-performance and low-cost platform for creating measurement and control systems. These systems are applicable in various industries, such as the aerospace industry, automotive and industrial testing, electronics testing, verification of RF and microwave devices and components, etc.
The basis of the PXI architecture is the industrial implementation of the PCI bus in the form of the CompactPCI standard, combined with additional software and hardware inherent in instrumentation. The system in the PXI standard consists of a rack (chassis) in which modular devices, controllers or interfaces are installed for remote control of the platform.
In 2005, the PXI Express specification was introduced, based on the PCI Express bus. The main advantage of PXI Express over PXI is a higher level of performance, as well as higher accuracy and resistance to interference.
The PXI Systems Alliance (PXISA) was founded in 1998 and is an industry consortium that defines and manages the PXI system specifications, which include hardware and software requirements, ensuring system compatibility and ease of integration.
Stages of development of PXI
PXI-2 Software Specification Rev. 2.5
PXI-5 PXI Express Hardware Specification Rev. 1.1
PXI-6 PXI Express Software Specification Rev. 1.3
PXI-6 PXI Express Software Specification Rev. 1
PXI-2 Software Specification Rev. 2.1
PXI-3 VISA for PXI Specification Rev. 1.0
LXI or LAN eXtensions for Instruments is the industry standard for instrumentation. It was developed by a consortium of leading manufacturers and users of instrumentation, created in September 2004 and has over 40 members. The LXI Consortium includes leading companies in the instrumentation industry - Keysight Technologies, Tektronix, Rohde & Schwarz, etc.
The LXI specification is based on the well-established Ethernet standard and describes the interaction of any LXI devices, regardless of the manufacturer, which removes the problems associated with device compatibility and allows quick and efficient data collection and processing.
LXI technologies are developed for the field of measuring and control-diagnostic systems and equipment. For diagnostic, control and management systems in science, industry, research institutes, especially when a distributed system and remote data collection are required, the LXI standard is an optimal and promising choice that makes it easy to build and upgrade the system if necessary, as well as include existing equipment in it.
Today, Russia also has an active LXI standard, and is currently being produced:
- 3 types of power supplies
- 3 types of media for mezzanine modules
- 4 types of specialized blocks
- 52 types of mezzanine modules
Stages of development of LXI
The VXI standard is one of the progressive directions in the development of the VMEbus (VMEbus eXtention for Instrumentation - VXI is the expansion of VMEbus for measurement technology). Based on the VMEbus, and fully incorporating it as a subset, the VXI interface is an independent standard for instrumentation and control equipment of the highest accuracy class.
Initially, the standard was aimed at applications in the aviation and space sectors, the energy sector, scientific research for the creation of control, diagnostic and radio-measuring equipment, as well as for high-precision measurements in a wide range of various applied problems. Due to the fact that the standard was developed specifically for this class of tasks, it satisfies most industrial standards, including MIL-45662A, complies with the industrial quality standard ISO 9000, as well as standards for electromagnetic compatibility and noise immunity (EN 55011, EN 50082-1). All technical solutions ensuring these requirements are taken into account in VXI equipment at the design stage and do not require additional costs for their provision during the assembly of the system and its operation.
Currently, the VXI interface is considered the most promising for the creation of control and diagnostic and high-precision measuring and control systems, and complexes for various purposes. It has the highest growth dynamics of manufactured and sold products in the Western market, a steady tendency towards technical improvement and expansion of its fields of application. This explains the sharp increase in the number of VXI devices in the products of such world leaders in measurement technology as Bustec Ltd., Astronics Test Systems, Keysight Technologies, Teradyne and others.